Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Case Analysis on Ryan Air Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Analysis on Ryan Air - Case Study Example Thus, in 2004, the company's short-term market orientation involved segmenting by lifestyle and by income bracket in the European marketplace in order to appeal to a broader target consumer audience. The key stakeholders in the firm include all staff members responsible for carrying out strategic objectives, the communities in which Ryanair thrives, as well as the customers who frequent Ryanair as their low-cost carrier of choice. Satisfying the stakeholder appears to be the firm's long-term mission in Europe in lieu of having no established, formalised mission or vision statement. Lack of such a mission or vision may be involved in the rationale for why Ryanair experienced sales declines in 2004, however this will be discussed in further detail in this case analysis report. This report will highlight factors in both the internal and external business environment which are plaguing Ryanair in terms of maintaining a strategic orientation that is completely congruent with sales goals and growth initiatives. A micro- and macro-level analysis of the firm in 2004 is proposed in this report. PEST analysis is an acronym for political, economic, social an... Each of the aforementioned forces are categorised by a particular macro-level external influence, each of which directly impacts strategic direction at Ryanair. The external political environment is one of significant advantage to Ryanair, as the majority of its operations are contained within Europe. It is relatively common knowledge that this region maintains political stability, thus Ryanair does not experience issues with governmental instability in Europe as a concern regarding passenger volumes or flight destinations. However, outside of the European marketplace, the firm maintains significant economic difficulties posed by political forces such as OPEC, the organisation responsible for oil production in the Middle East. As the majority of international revenues in the Mid-East regions stem from oil and oil production/distribution, the current methodology of global supply chain (in relation to where oil is delivered based on price and overall demand) incurs large-scale costs to Ryanair who, like other business entities, is unable to secure low-cost fuel due to political forces which drive oil distribution. This assessment of the external political environment is well-supported by Ryanair documentation highlighting 2004 as a year of challenges stemming largely from the cost of oil which continued to escalate in this particular period (Annual Report, 2004). The economic environment in which Ryanair thrives in 2004 is relatively stable in terms of maintaining operations successfully and contributing to the financial well-being of European nations in the process. The European Union, consisting of a large quantity of developed countries in Europe, maintains a high value for its integrated currencies, suggesting that this region is

Monday, October 28, 2019

Growing Pain Essay Example for Free

Growing Pain Essay So by the end of 1992, Waterway had begun selling its own line of compact, inexpensive, high-impact plastic kayaks. Within one quarter, Maher had known that the move had been a smart one. Almost all of Waterway’s existing canoe customers— mostly wholesalers who then sold to liveries and sporting goods stores—had placed sizable kayak orders. A number of private-label entities had also inquired about Waterway, and Maher was considering producing privatelabel kayaks for those companies on a limited basis. For the most part, the staff had adjusted easily to the company’s faster pace. The expanded business hadn’t changed Waterway’s informal work style, and people seemed to appreciate that. Maher knew that most of his employees were avid outdoor types who viewed their jobs as a means to an end, and he respected that perspective. On days when the weather was particularly good, he knew that the building would be pretty empty by 4 P. M. But he also knew that his employees liked their jobs. Work was always completed on time, and people were outspoken with new ideas and with suggestions for improving current designs and processes. There was no mistaking the genuine camaraderie. Maher walked through the design room, stopping to talk with one of the two designers and to admire the latest drawings. Then he headed for the administrative suite. His thoughts returned to the company’s recent history. Until 1990, Waterway’s sales and revenues had increased with the market, and Maher hadn’t been motivated to push any harder. But when he had decided to venture into kayaking, he also had thought he should gear up marketing— get ready for the big trend if it came. Until then, there had never been a formal, structured marketing department at Waterway. He had thought it was time. That’s why he had hired Lee Carter. Carter had gotten her M. B. A. when she was 31. To do so, she had left a fast-track position in sales at Waterway’s major competitor in the canoe market to devote her full attention to her studies. Finch, who was something of a mentor for Carter, had told her that she would hit the ceiling too early in her career if she didn’t have the credentials to compete in her field. In her final term at business school, which had included a full course load plus a demanding internship with the Small Business Administration, Carter had interviewed ith Waterway. Finch had called to introduce her, but once Maher had met her and she had begun to outline the ways in which she could improve the company’s sales and marketing efforts, Maher had needed no other references. He had thought from the start that Carter might be the right person to nurture the company’s interest in the growing kayaking business and to run with it if the sp ort’s popularity really took off. When it had, he was proved right. True, the market was extremely favorable, but Carter had brought in more orders than even Maher had thought possible. Fortunately, the company had been able to keep up by contracting with other manufacturing companies for more product. Waterway had been extremely effective in keeping inventory in line with customer demand. Maher was impressed with Carter’s performance. From day one, she had been completely focused. She traveled constantly— worked so hard that she barely had time to get to know the staff. She came in on weekends to catch up with paperwork. Along with two of her direct reports, she had even missed the annual Waterway picnic; the three had been on the road, nailing down a large order. It was a dedication—a level of energy—that Maher had never seen before, and he liked what it said about his company. Back in his office, Maher found that he couldn’t concentrate on the product development report in front of him. That bit of conversation he had overheard outside Carter’s office was troubling. He certainly knew about the lucrative packages that were being offered in the sporting goods industry—even in Waterway’s niche. He’d even heard that some sales managers were commanding a quarter of a million dollars or more. He had read enough of the annual reports of his publicly traded competitors to know that larger organizations created all sorts of elaborate systems—supplemental retirement packages, golden handcuffs, stock options, deferred compensation arrangements— to hold on to their top performers. harvard business review †¢ july–august 1996 page 2 Growing Pains †¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ †¢HBR C AS E S TUDY â€Å"The business could stand to pay more,† Maher said, â€Å"but I want to avoid the habit of paying now for results down the road. † Maher wanted to recognize Carter’s contribution.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

To what extent was the Swiss banking system responsible for empowering

A: Plan of Investigation The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the extent of the support of Swiss banks towards the Nazi regime. In the analysis, the role of Swiss banks during World War II as well as the legal action that those banks faced in recent years will be examined. An evaluation of the origin, purpose, value and limitation of two sources used for research will also be provided in this investigation: â€Å"How Swiss Bank Accounts Work†- by Lee Ann Orbinger, and â€Å"Swiss Banks Settlement: In Re Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation†, an official online version of a settlement issued by Judge Edward R. Korman of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York. B: Summary of Evidence Swiss Code of Secrecy The Swiss banking system has been renowned for its code of secrecy, which was established over 300 years ago. This policy was created for the French kings, at the time, which required large sums of financial support under utmost secrecy. In 1713, the Great Council of Geneva founded a set of regulations prohibiting bankers from revealing any account information with anybody other than the client, unless the Great Council itself agreed upon the disclosure of information. This allowed Swiss banks to be seen as a safe haven for those with illegal possessions, or even abnormally large bank accounts. Most notably, the noblemen and aristocrats that fled France during the Revolution sought refuge in Switzerland, due to the financial security that was offered. Although the disclosure of account information was frowned upon by the Swiss government, it was not considered a criminal offence. This was until the Banking Act of 1934 was established. Foreign Pressure Switzerland’s Banking Act of 1934 was a fede... ..." HowStuffWorks, Inc., 08 June 2007. Web. 03 Mar. 2012. . "Swiss Banks Settlement: In Re Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation - Overview." Swiss Banks Settlement: In Re Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation. Web. 03 Mar. 2012. . "Switzerland's Role In World War II." Switzerland's Role in World War II. Ed. Markus G. Jud. Web. 03 Mar. 2012. . "U.S. and Allied Efforts To Recover and Restore Gold and Other Assets Stolen or Hidden by Germany During World War II." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. May 1997. Web. 01 Apr. 2012. .

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Challenges and Opportunities for Ob

ORB PQ Chapter 3 : Attitudes and Job Satisfaction1. Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude? a. Attitudes indicate how one will react to a given event. b. Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one’s actions. c. Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event. d. Attitudes are evaluative statements concerning objects, people or events e. Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated. 2. The belief that â€Å"violence is wrong† is a evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes the component of an attitude. . cognitive b. affective c. reflective d. behavioral e. reactive 3. The _____ component of an attitude is the emotional or feeling component of that attitude. a. affective b. cognitive c. behavioral d. evaluative e. reaffective 4. The following are possible actions that an individual may take if they behave in a way that is inconsistent with an attitude that they hold: I: change the behavior II: change the attitude III: rationalize the behavior IV: ignore the inconstancy Which of these actions are the most likely to be taken? a. Either I, or II b. Either III or IV c. One of I, II or III . One of I, III or IV e. One of II, III or IV 5. Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes results in _____. a. organizational dissonance b. cognitive dissonance c. attitudinal clarification d. values clarification e. affective reactance 6. The theory of cognitive dissonance was proposed by ______________. a. Maslow b. Festinger c. Hofstede d. Skinner e. Pavlov 7. â€Å"Dissonance† means ______________. a. reactance b. constance c. resistance d. consistency e. inconsistency 8. According to Festinger, people will seek a(an) ________________________. a. ariable state with variable dissonance b. stable state with maximal dissonance c. unstable state with maximal dissonance d. unstable state with minimal dissonance e. stable state with minimal dissonance 9. Festinger proposed that the desire to reduce dissonance is determined by three factors including the_________________. a. values of the elements creating the dissonance b. degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements c. degree of positive affect the person has toward the behavior d. fact that values and attitudes will vary over the short term e. wareness that dissonance exists 10. The primary organizational implication of cognitive dissonance theory is that it helps to predict _____. a. overall job satisfaction for employees b. the likelihood of a given employee engaging in impression management c. the overall level to which the workforce will accept gender, racial or other types of bias d. the willingness of the workforce to accept company rules and work practices e. the propensity to engage in attitude and behavioral change of the workforce 11. Which of the following is not a moderating variable of the A-B relationship? . direct experience b. consistency c. specificity d. accessibility e. importance 12. The theory that attitudes are used, after the fact, to make sense out of action that has already occurred is best explained by ______________. a. cognitive dissonance b. escalation of commitment c. self perception theory d. uncertainty avoidance e. organizational commitment 13. The E. M. Foster quote, â€Å"How can I know what I think ‘til I see what I say? † reflects the notions captured by ______________ theory. a. cognitive dissonance b. escalation of commitment c. self perception d. ncertainty avoidance e. social affirmation 14. The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is _________________. a. job satisfaction b. job involvement c. job stability d. organizational commitment e. social embeddedness 15. ________________ can be defined as a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. a. Job satisfaction b. Job involvement c. Job stability d. Organizational commitment e. Social investment 16.In her work in the publishing industry, Vera seeks out new authors who she considers promising. In the past two years she has found a number of new writers whose work she thought was exceptional, and immersed herself in the task of helping them shape their manuscripts for submission to her managers for publishing. Although she was extremely proud of the results, none of the authors she worked with were chosen for publication. Vera believes that the decision not to publish these authors was based on personal rivalries within management, rather than the quality of her writers’ work.She is extremely frustrated, dreads coming into work each morning and is seriously thinking of resigning. How can Vera’s job attitudes best be described? a. low job satisfaction and low job involvement b. low job satisfaction and high job involvement c. high job satisfaction and low job involvement d. high job satisfaction and high job involvement e. low organizational commitment17. Organiza tional commitment is defined as ___________________________. a. the degree to which an employee identifies with the organization they work for and its goals b. n employee’s belief that the organization they work for will go to considerable lengths to ensure that its employees are treated fairly c. the degree to which an employee’s sense of fulfillment and self worth is related to their job d. the amount of effort an employee will make in order to keep or advance their position in an organization e. the degree to which an employee believes their work impacts their organization18. Of the following, the best predictor of turnover is ______________. a. job satisfaction b. job involvement c. organizational commitment d. cognitive dissonance e. ffective dissonance19. The following are methods of measuring employee attitudes: I. a one-question global rating II. a summation score made up of a number of job facets III. a 360? battery Which of these methods are the best to use i n order to measure job satisfaction? a. I only b. II only c. III only dI and II are equally as good e. II or III are equally as good20. The following statements are about the relationship between job satisfaction and customer satisfaction for frontline employees who have regular customer contact: I. employee satisfaction is positively correlated to customer satisfaction II. employee satisfaction has no correlation to customer satisfaction III. satisfied customers tend to raise employee satisfaction Which of these statements are true? a. I only b. II only c. III only d. I and III e. II and III21. Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements and discussing problems with superiors would be what type of response? a. exit b. voice c. loyalty d. neglect e. reification22. Quietly continuing to do your work when you know things won’t improve, is what type of response to dissatisfaction? a. exit b. oice c. loyalty d. neglect e. social voice23. Maria is dissatisfied with the way that her manager treats her. She has quit her job and found a new position with another firm. She has expressed her dissatisfaction through __________. a. exit b. voice c. loyalty d. neglect e. social voice24. Henry is dissatisfied with his job but believes that his supervisor is a good man who will do the right thing. Henry has decided that if he just waits, conditions will improve. Henry’s approach to this problem is termed ________. a. exit b. voice c. loyalty d. neglect e. reificationSCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONSMrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that worker’s rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage.25. Mrs. Jonas is likely experiencing _____. a. cognitive dissonance b. unresolved anger c. ethical evasion d. uncertainty avoidance e. social pressure 6. In this situation Mrs. Jonas has a/an _____ that is in conflict with a/an _____. a. behavior; behavior b. attitude; attitude c. social need; social interest d. social need; social need e. behavior; attitude27. Mrs. Jonas can be expected to relieve the discomfort she is experiencing by _____. a. deciding this issue is unimportant b. rationalizing that it is not her problem since she is not the contractor c. attempting to stop the contractor using undocumented workers d. coming to accept that using undocumented workers does not harm workers’ rights e. any of the aboveEmployees at Acme Express are dissatisfied with working conditions, salary, and the general attitude of management. Mark, Susan, and Toni are good friends who work at Acme, yet each seem to be reacting differently to the problems at work.28. Toni has decide d that she’ll just get a new job and get away from the problem. Toni is dealing with her dissatisfaction through _____. a. exit b. voice c. loyalty d. neglect e. acceptance29. Susan has composed a list of concerns along with her suggestions for improving conditions. Susan is dealing with her dissatisfaction through ________. a. exit b. voice c. oyalty d. neglect e. acceptance30. Mark believes that his manager is a good person and will work things out if Mark just gives him time to do so. Mark is dealing with his dissatisfaction through _____. a. exit b. voice c. loyalty d. neglect e. acceptanceDESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS1. Explain the concept of job satisfaction and discuss how job satisfaction can impact employee productivity, absenteeism and turnover.1. Discuss Cognitive dissonance and Self – Perception Theories and examine their significance in understanding relationship between Attitude and Behavior ( A – B Relationship) ___________________ Challenges and Opportunities for Ob International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 3, No. 2 (2012), pp. 139-147 www. irssh. com ISSN 2248-9010 (Online), ISSN 2250-0715 (Print) The Constructivist Theory in Mathematics: The Case of Botswana Primary Schools Thenjiwe Emily Major (Corresponding Author) Department of Educational Foundations University of Botswana Private Bag- 00702, Gaborone Botswana- 00267 E-mail: [email  protected] ub. bw Boitumelo Mangope Department of Educational Foundations University of Botswana Private Bag- 00702, Gaborone Botswana- 00267 E-mail: [email  protected] ub. w (Received: 13-10-11 / Accepted: 12-4-12) Abstract This paper is based on a large research study that compared teacher quality and student performance in Southern Africa countries of Botswana and South Africa. In this paper we explore the extent to which the primary school teachers in Botswana use the constructivist approach in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Data was collected through classroom videotaping. Sixty out of the 64 mathematics teachers teaching at least one mathematics lesson, and more than one third of the teachers were videotaped twice.A total of 83 mathematics lessons were videotaped. The results of the study indicated that a large percentage of lessons observed required learners to simply recall rules, while a very small percentage of the lessons observed required learners to investigate or explore relationships between mathematical ideas. Keywords: Constructivism, mathematics, active learning, Botswana, passive learning. Introduction Constructivism is a learning theory describing the process of knowledge construction.Knowledge construction is an active, rather than a passive process. Constructivists believe that knowledge should not be just deposited into the learners’ minds; instead it should be constructed by the learners through active involvement in the learning process. Hausfather (2001) noted that, Constructivism is not a method. It is a theory of knowledg e and learning that should inform practice but not prescribe practice. By its very nature, constructivism emphasizes the Thenjiwe Emily Major et al. 140 mportance of the teaching context, student prior knowledge, and active interaction between the learner and the content to be learned. (p. 18). In the constructivist perspective, knowledge is constructed by the individual through his/her interactions with the environment. Unlike the traditional mode of learning whereby the teacher plays an active role in the teaching/learning environment, and learners passively receive the content, constructivists believe the learning should be centered on the learner.This has been acknowledged by Simon (1995) that â€Å"we construct our knowledge of our world from our perceptions and experiences, which are themselves mediated through our previous knowledge† (p. 115). When teachers believe that learners are empty vessels to be filled with the information from the authority, then teacher domina tion will always exist in the teaching learning environment. According to Freire (1970) the domination of the teacher is referred to as the ‘banking concept’ education.The banking concept sees the teacher as the only source of information. It is important that teachers should actively involve learners in their teaching to enable the students to construct knowledge. According to the Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2004) â€Å" in the classroom teaching, constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different teaching practices†¦it means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving)† (p. 1).Kennedy (1997) also noted that â€Å"what students learn is greatly influenced by how they are taught† (p. 2). Mathematics by nature is a subject that requires learners to be fully engaged in order for learning to take place. Therefore, this paper explores the extent to which learners were given the oppo rtunity to construct their own knowledge in the mathematics lessons. Statement of the Problem Botswana students need to learn mathematics differently than the current practices employed. Research has revealed that most teachers in Botswana end to present mathematics knowledge to the learners to swallow and regurgitate when needed, and not with the aim of helping them to develop independent skills to construct their own mathematics knowledge (The Report on the process of learning in Botswana: An in-depth study of the quality of mathematics teaching in sixth grade classrooms and its effect on learner achievement, 2011). Teachers have also been discovered to have insufficient skills to present maths skills to learners (The Report on the process of learning in Botswana, 2011).Teachers, therefore, must change their instructional techniques for learners to be actively engaged in their own learning and not passive recipients. Learners must learn to communicate and think mathematically. For future educational growth, , Botswana needs learners who are creative, analytic, problem solvers. Such skills can be promoted at the school level through the constructivist approach. Review of Literature Constructivism The constructivist theory to teaching and learning has been broadly addressed in a number of researches in mathematics education (Katic, Hmelo-Silver & Weber, 2009; Steele, 1995).According to this theory, students do not just passively receive information but constantly create new knowledge based on prior knowledge in conjunction with new experiences. As opposed to the traditional approaches where students learn by copying â€Å"word for word† what teachers say, constructivism has shifted to a more radical conception of teaching and learning whereby learners’ fresh ideas are brought to class, acknowledged, and enhanced through a variety of teaching and learning techniques that actively engage them.A number of studies have shown the effectiveness of the constructivist approach in teaching and learning in contrast to the traditional drilling and reciting approach (Hmelo-Silver, Duncan, & Chinn, 2007; Steele, 1995). A study by Steele, (1995) on â€Å"A construct visit Approach to mathematics teaching and learning†¦.. † revealed that using constructivist International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 3, No. 2 (2012), 139-147 141 learning strategies has positive gains. For example, such strategies tend to create an exciting environment for students to learn mathematics and enhance their self-esteem.According to this study, when students learn to construct their own knowledge, they tend to have control of mathematical concepts and think mathematically. Another study by Katic, Hmelo-Silver & Weber, (2009) on Material Mediation, suggest that materials can help to motivate and mediate the participants’ collaborative problem solving discussions. In this study, Katic, et al. , teachers used a variety of resou rces to solve a mathematics problem and construct explanations about the learning process; they, then, posed questions about the problem to clarify their solutions.This is a method that is encouraged in social theories like constructivism, as it generally assists in keeping the learners on task. Although constructivist learning theory does not tell us how to teach mathematics, a teacher with a constructivist background can facilitate learners’ construction of knowledge by applying different constructivist teaching approaches that are in aligned with this learning theory. This type of mathematics teaching forms the basis of this study.Nevertheless, a number of studies in Botswana on teacher centered versus learner centered approaches have revealed that teacher centered approaches are dominant in Botswana classrooms (Prophet, Rowell, 1993; Republic of Botswana, 1993; Tabulawa, 1997, 1998). For example a study By Tabulawa, (1997), on Pedagogical Classroom Practice†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ has indicated that students in the classrooms have been shown to be passive recipients of knowledge, which means that they are not given the opportunity to construct their own knowledge.The commission on Education (1977) has also highlighted this as a major concern in the education system of Botswana. According to this policy, teachers have a tendency to dominate in the classroom as most of the information transmitted to students is often too abstract and mostly requires them to memorize. This policy in a way was calling for a radical change in the classroom practices to allow for students’ growth through teaching and learning that is learner driven.Tabulawa, (1998) has also indicated a concern on the perceptions that teachers have that influence their classroom practices. In addition, Tabulawa, noted that there are certain factors that influence teachers to be dominant in the classrooms such as â€Å"teachers’ assumptions about the nature of knowledge and the ways it ought to be transmitted and the perceptions of students†. These factors are worrisome as they tend to perpetuate teacher centered approaches as opposed to learner centered practices.The study is out to find out the extent to which teachers apply the constructivist theory of teaching and learning when teaching mathematics. This is a theory that has been proven beyond reasonable doubt to enhance students’ independent learning. Methodology Sampling To address the objective of the study, the researcher used data from Human Research Science Council (HRSC) -Stanford- University of Botswana Regional Education Study that was conducted in 2009/10 as a comparative study on teacher quality and student performance in Botswana and South Africa.Out of 60 sampled schools in Botswana, data was obtained from 58 schools and 64 classrooms (two math classrooms in six of the schools taught by the same teacher in each school). The sample focused on 5 districts in Botswana, namely; low-incom e schools in five districts within 50 kilometers of the South African border, Gaborone (18 schools, 617 students), Kgatleng (16 schools, 495 students), Lobatse (6 schools, 152 students), South East (10 schools, 305 students), and Southern (8 schools, 205 students). InstrumentationData was collected through videotaping 83 standard six mathematics teachers teaching at least one mathematics lesson. More than one-third of the teachers were videotaped twice. The filming was done at the middle and towards the end of the year by trained personnel of the Thenjiwe Emily Major et al. 142 Botswana team from the University of Botswana. Teachers whose classes were videotaped were informed in advance about the research team visits. They were further told that the videos will only be used for the study. Data AnalysisThe videotape analysis was also done by well trained personnel from the University of Botswana and the U. S. A. From various video analyses conducted, the levels of cognitive demand we re selected based on the relevance of this paper since the focus was on the thinking process in which the learner was engaged. The ‘level(s) of cognitive demand’ in which learners were engaged in during the lesson were derived from a rubric in Stein et al. ’s (2000) classification of higher and lower cognitive demand. These are: Lower Level Demand 1.Memorization: Memorization recollection of facts, formulae, or definitions 2. Task requires the recall of previously learned material. Or the committing of facts, formulas or definitions to memory. Task cannot be solved using procedures because procedures do not exist or the time frame in which task is to be completed is too short to use a procedure. Tasks involve exact reproduction of previously seen material and what is reproduced is clearly and directly stated. Task has no connection to concept or meaning that underlies the facts, rules, formula, or definition being learned or reproduced.Processes without Connectio ns: Performing algorithmic type of problems and have no connection to the underlying concept or meaning Task is algorithmic. Use of procedures either is specifically stated or its use is evident based on prior instruction, experience, or placement of task. Task leaves little ambiguity about what needs to be done and how to do it. No connection or explanation of the concept is needed. Task focuses on producing correct answers rather than developing mathematical understanding. Higher Level Demand 3.Processes with Connections: Use of procedures with the purpose of developing deeper levels of understanding concepts or ideas Task requires use of procedures to develop deeper understanding of the concept. Task suggests pathways to follow that are broad general procedures rather than algorithms that are opaque with respect to underlying concepts. Tasks are usually represented in multiple ways (e. g. visual diagrams, manipulatives, symbols, problem situations) Connections among the represent ations builds meaning to concept. Tasks require some thinking, although using a procedure t cannot be followed mindlessly. Students need to engage in conceptual ideas to successfully complete the task. Doing Concepts and Processes: Doing mathematics complex and non-algorithmic thinking, students explore and investigate the nature of the concepts and relationships Task requires access of relevant knowledge, self-reflection on actions, exploring concepts, processes and relationships in non-algorithmic activity. Task demands self-monitoring or self-regulation of thinking. – 4. – International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 3, No. 2 (2012 139-147 (2012), 147 143 –Task requires analysis of constraints that may limit possible solution strategies and solutions. Task is unpredictable due to nature of solution process required. The focus in this component (the levels of cognitive demand) is the thinking processes in cognitive which learners engage in the observed lessons. In a constructivist classroom, learners are expected to think at a very high level, – as they are actively involved in their own learning. Apart from the analysis of the levels of cognitive demand, the data analysis members also s made some observations on how students interacted with the teacher.They made notes on these observations. Findings Levels of cognitive demand in classroom teaching in a sample of Botswana School 90 80 70 Percent of Lessons 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Memorization Procedures without connections Procedures with connections Doing mathematics The findings of the study indicated that 7. 3. 5% of the lessons required learners to recall a fact which in fact is memorization, 85% of the lessons do procedures without connections, and 23% do procedures with connections and only 3% students explore and investigate the nature of the concepts and relationships.From the video note observations, the data indicates that in most lessons teachers asked the s tudents questions and allowed the whole class to call out the answers. These findings concur with Arthur’s (1998), that â€Å"I observed many teacher dominated classroom procedures, in teacher-dominated particular lengthy recitations of questions by teacher and answers by individual or whole class† (p. 314). When teachers are the only ones asking questions and students being the s† respondents, learning is no longer centered on the learner but more on the teacher.Discussions From the findings it is evident that teachers used the procedural teaching and students learned by memorizing facts. When learners do the rote learning they are not encouraged to think critically and to construct their own knowledge as the teacher is the one who provides the one content for them. Memorization in Botswana classrooms is very common as evidenced by previous researchers such as Fuller and Snyder (1991), Arthur (1998), Tabulawa (2004, 1998, Thenjiwe Emily Major et al. 144 and 1997 ).Arthur and Martin (2006) in their study on comparative classroom teaching and learning found that most teachers in Botswana â€Å"ask low-level factual questions, with few opportunities for pupils†¦learners do not exercise their reasoning powers or imaginations† (p. 195). As data has indicated that lessons were predominately recalling of facts and procedures without any application to real life situations, one may assume that learners were not constructing their own knowledge but were simply spoon-fed by teachers. The National Commission on Education of Botswana (1977) also oncurs with this study that learning is mostly memorizing and recalling of facts which, in a way, does not add any value to the learning process. One of the goals of vision 2016 is for the education system of Botswana to provide quality education that would enable Batswana to adapt to the changing needs of the country as well as the global changes. This vision goal can be achieved if teachers adapt to theories such as constructivism that allow learners to explore and come up with their own solutions to the problems.Memorization and imitating teachers will not give Botswana learners sufficient wisdom to survive independently in this world of socio-political and economic unrest. From the data, one concludes that learners were not given tasks that challenged their thinking and the construction of their own knowledge. Henningsen and Stein (1997) noted that Mathematical tasks are central to students' learning because â€Å"tasks convey messages about what mathematics is and what doing mathematics entails†(NCTM, 1 991, p. 24). The tasks in which students engage provide the contexts in which they learn to think about subject students. p. 525) matter, and different tasks may place differing cognitive demands on Indeed if learners are given tasks that encourage memorization of ideas, according to Stein et al. ’s (2000) levels of cognitive demands, the learners are at the lowest level. In this level students are given formulas to memorize and just follow procedures without making any connections to real life situations. For example, in one of the videos the teacher was teaching the topic â€Å"area†. This is how she taught the lesson; first she asked the learners the meaning of the word area.Learners could not define the word, and instead of the teacher defining it, she gave the learners the formula for solving the area of a square. She then drew some shapes on the board, solved one as an example and then asked the learners to use the formula to find areas of the rest shapes. Indeed using the formula given, most learners were able to find the areas of the shapes drawn by their teacher. But can the learners apply the idea to real life? The procedure may be correct. However, did the learners make any connections to real life?From the analysis of the data it is evident that most tasks given to the learners only concentrated on the low levels of c ognitive demand. The task focused on producing correct answers rather than developing mathematical understanding. Various reasons such as examination driven curriculum may have contributed to Botswana teachers delivering facts (giving lower level tasks) to learners rather than allowing learners to think and construct their own knowledge. The centralized curriculum as well as examinations does contribute to teacher-domination as teachers are more concerned with completion of the syllabus at a given period.Arthur and Martin (2006) acknowledged that â€Å"pupils examination success provides access to further education in Botswana† (p. 192) forcing teachers to rush through the syllabus. This has also been confirmed by Tabulawa, (1998), that teachers’ perceptions of students and the goals of schooling have a direct influence in the way teachers teach because teachers see themselves as the main transmitters of knowledge, while students are passive recipients who must memoriz e and produce during examinations.Another reason may be the large numbers of teacher to students’ ratio which then encourages delivering of facts rather than allowing learners to construct their own knowledge. In a constructivist learning environment, learners learn best by discovering their own knowledge. Teachers encourage higher – level thinking so that students can reach beyond the simple factual response. Moreover, in a constructivist classroom, learners are encouraged to summarize concepts by analyzing, predicting, justifying, and defending their ideas.Cobb (1999) noted that â€Å"constructivist learning theory predicts that knowledge encoded from data by learners themselves will be more flexible, transferable, and useful than knowledge encoded for them by experts and transmitted to them by an instructor or other delivery agent† (p. 15). International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 3, No. 2 (2012), 139-147 145 In constructivism knowledge co nstruction is emphasized rather than knowledge reproduction. Knowledge construction helps the learners to remember what they have learned.The second highest level of cognitive demand encourages ‘use of procedures with the purpose of developing deeper levels of understanding concepts or ideas’. For learners to master the content, constructivist believe that higher order thinking skills and deeper understanding should be emphasized in the learning environment. Learners develop into critical thinkers if they are actively involved in the learning process and are encouraged to apply the concepts to real life situation. By this, learners are making meaningful connections.Learners can use their experiences to construct new information if given the opportunity to practice in the teaching/learning environment rather than having facts poured into them by the one in authority. The role of the teacher is to serve as a facilitator. The highest level of cognitive demand calls for doi ng mathematics complex and nonalgorithmic thinking, students explore and investigate the nature of the concepts and relationships. Tasks that learners are supposed to be engaged in should help them explore the relationship between concepts they are learning and reality.For, example, if learners are doing ‘area’ as a topic of study, let them explore the idea and find out how the topic can be applied in real life situations. Teachers should provide tasks that will lead the learners to explore, discover, and apply the concepts. Richard cited by Simon (1995) noted that It is necessary [for t he mathematics teacher] to provide a structure and a set of plans that support the development of informed exploration and reflective inquiry without taking initiative or control away from the student. The teacher must design tasks and projects that stimulate student to ask questions pose, problems, and set goals.Students will not become active learners by accident but by design through the use of the plans that we structure to guide exploration and inquiry. (118) It is, therefore, the responsibility of every teacher to plan activities that require high level of cognitive demand. It is important to note that high levels of cognitive demand require students to use their prior knowledge as advocated by the constructivists. Henningsen and Stein (1997) contended that â€Å"connections with what students already know and understand also play an important role in engaging students in high-level thought processes† (p. 27). For students to perform tasks that require critical thinking and applying of concepts, experience or prior knowledge used as a base is crucial. The findings in this study indicate that teachers did not engage the learners on tasks that required them to use higher levels of cognitive demand. These findings concur with what Prophet and Rowell cited by Fuller and Snyder (1991) that teachers in Botswana classrooms â€Å"ask for factual information through sentence completion exercise with pupils individual or in chorus simply adding the missing word.Students are rarely asked to explain the process or the interrelation between two or more event† (p. 276). This is a clear indication that teachers in Botswana classroom give learners tasks that are mostly associated with the low level of cognitive demand of which the constructivist theory does not encourage. The theory of constructivism also values the uniqueness of every learner. Students learn differently. The teacher, as the facilitator, should appreciate every learner’s strengths and weaknesses. Each learner should be given the opportunity to construct knowledge from his/her own experiences.Summary DeVries, Zan, Hildebrandt, Edmiaston, and Sales ( 2002) asserted that â€Å"teacherswho have been accustomed to teaching by telling and directing children’s work must shift from seeing themselves as central in producing learning to seeing thechild as centralâ⠂¬ (p. 36). From the study one concluded that there was a lot of spoon-feeding in most classes. Students were not given tasks that encouraged them to be doers and thinkers of mathematics, but rather to be consumers of mathematics concepts. Knowledge construction was very limited in most classes making learning more teacher-centered.Thenjiwe Emily Major et al. 146 The continued teacher domination in the Botswana teaching/learning environment will result in learners who cannot think deeply and critically. Knowledge is not passively received, but actively built up by the learners. Constructivism, therefore, encourages learners to be given the opportunity to construct their own knowledge from the previous experiences so at to be able to apply theory to practice and to make meaningful connections to what they learn to the real world. References [1] [2] J.Arthur, Institutional practices and the cultural construction of primary school teachers in Botswana, Comparative Education, 34(4) (19 98), 313-326. J. Arthur and P. Martin, Accomplishing lessons in postcolonial classrooms: Comparative perspectives from Botswana and Brunei Darussalam, Comparative Education, 42(2006), 177-202. S. K. W. Chu, K. Chow and S. K. Tse, Developing Hong Kong primary school students‘ information literacy and IT skills through collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL, Library and Information Research, (2011), (In Press). T.Cobb, Applying constructivism: A test for the learner as scientist, Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(3) (1999), 15-31. R. DeVries, B. Zan, C. Hildebrandt, R. Edmiaston and C. Sales, Developing Constructivist Early Childhood Curriculum, (2002), New York: Teacher’s College Press. Educational Broadcasting Corporation, Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning, (2004), Retrieved on April 12 from http://www. thirteen. org/edonline/ concept2class/constructivism/index. html P. Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, (1970), New York: Herder a nd Herder.B. Fuller and C. Jr. Snyder, Vocal teachers, silent pupils? Life in Botswana classrooms, Comparative Education Review, 35(2) (1991), 274-294. M. Henningsen and M. R. Stein, Mathematical tasks and student cognition: Classroom-based factors that support and inhibit high-level mathematical thinking and reasoning, Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(5) ( 1997), 24549. Hausfather, Where is the content? The role of content in constructivist teacher education, Educational Horizons, 80(1) (2001), 15-19. S. Hmelo, E. Cindy, R. G. Duncan and C. A.Chinn, Scaffolding and achievement in problem based and inquiry learning: A response to Kirscher, Sweller and Clark (2006), Educational Psychologist, 42(2) (2007), 99-107. E. K. Katic, Hmelo-Silver and K. H. Weber, Material mediation: Tools and representations supporting collaborative problem-solving discourse, International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21(1) (2009), 13-24. M. M. Kennedy, Defining an i deal teacher education program, Paper prepared for the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, (March 1997), Retrieved on April 11 2011, from http://www. su. edu/~mkennedy/publications/Kennedy %20 to%20NCATE. pdf R. Prophet and P. M. Rowell, Coping and control: Science teaching strategies in Botswana, Qualitative Studies in Education, 6(3) (1993), 197-209. M. Simon, Reconstructing mathematics pedagogy from a constructivist perspective, Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 26(2) (1995), 114-145. D. F. Steele, A construct! Visit approach to mathematics teaching and learning by fourth–grade teachers, Unpublished Phd Dissertation, (1995), University of Florida. M. K. Stein, M. S. Smith, M.A. Henningsen and E. A. Silver, Implementing StandardsBased Mathematics Instruction: A Casebook for Professional Development, (2000), New York: Teachers College Press. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] International Review of Social Sc iences and Humanities, Vol. 3, No. 2 (2012), 139-147 147 [18] [19] [20] [21] The Report on the process of learning in Botswana: An in-depth study of the quality of mathematics teaching in sixth grade classrooms and its effect on learner achievement, Unpublished Document, (2011).R. T. Tabulawa, Geography students as constructors of classroom knowledge and practice: A case study from Botswana, Curriculum Studies, 36(1) (2004), 53-73. R. T. Tabulawa, Teachers' perspectives on classroom practice in Botswana: Implications for pedagogical change, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(2) (1998), 249-68. R. T. Tabulawa, Pedagogical classroom practice and the social context: The case of Botswana, International Journal of Educational Development, 17(2) (1997), 189-204.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Letter to Client Advising on the Tax Impact of Sale of Property by Installments

I would like to bring to your attention the tax ramifications of your expressed consideration to sell your estate to us. But before I can do that, I consider it very essential for you to understand how ABC Trusts work. This will require initial knowledge of how the more common AB Trusts work. AB Trust: An AB Trust offers creditor, lawsuit, divorce and bankruptcy protection for the surviving spouse in addition to similar protection for ones heirs when they take charge of their inheritances. The death of the first spouse makes the Living Trust be divided into two distinct Trusts. Trust A is held in the name of the living spouse while trust be is in the name of the deceased spouse. Both the two trusts are meant to be for the benefit of the surviving as long as they are alive, but in the end the assets will go to the spouses’ heirs. The surviving spouse, to a pre-agreed and stipulated level, controls Trust B though it belongs to the beneficiaries named in the Trust. All the assets and properties in Trust B pass to the originally stated beneficiaries upon the death of the surving spouse. The properties and assets in Trust B are considered not to be the surving spouse’s property and for that reason they are usually not subject to tax. ABC Trust: An ABC Trust has clauses that direct the trustee the revocable Living Trust, upon the occurrence of the first spouse’s death, to divide the Trust into three distinct and separate Trusts as opposed to two in an AB Trust. This has the effect of providing a even greater protection from creditors for the living spouse. Just as is the case with AB Trust, the A Trust is a revocable Living Trust for the living spouse. The Band C Trusts are irrevocable and are usually meant to benefit the surviving spouse while they are alive, but the assets in both Trusts eventually transfer to the deceased’s heirs on passing on of the surving spouse. Currently, $3. 5 million is the tax exempt amount per individual and $7million for a couple. Trust C holds any overflow over and above the $7million for couples, and this is contrary to AB Trust where the overflows of Income go to Trust A. This extends the creditor, bankruptcy, divorce and lawsuit protection to the surviving spouse in addition to the same protection offered to heirs, if they wish so. Taxation of installment sales In certain situations the installment sale of property method allows a sale of property without requiring the seller to recognize and report gains made on the property until the actual receipt of the payment. The rules that govern installment sales are well laid down. In addition the gain deferral achieved though installment sale treatment, in particular circumstances, and enables the transferor to spread gain over the period of payment of installments depending on the proportion the gross profit on sale carries to the price of the contract. If the seller and the buyer make an agreement to specifically allocate installments, then tax deferrals can be maximized. The rule for eligibility for installment sale treatment, the seller must receive not less than one payment after the end of year of tax in which the sale occurs . However, there are a number of ineligible transactions, which include among others transactions where the overall sale results into a loss and where transaction involves sale of inventory. Generally speaking, the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (TRA '97) had the impact of reducing the maximum capital gains rate to twenty per cent. However, some other changes have been made to the taxation of gains on depreciable real property. Complexities have often arose in administration of these new provisions to depreciable real estate sold subject. This however is of little concern for you because your property is non-depreciable. Considering the facts regarding the matter as laid down above, I am pleased to inform you that your effort of reducing the amount of tax that would be due as gain on sale is likely to succeed because the sale will be done at market value thus no losses shall be realized on the sale, in addition to the fact that the property is not an inventory. Furthermore, the tax will de deferred to the beneficiaries of your estate and thus will likely be spread and shared among several beneficiaries and thus the tax burden will be spread among several shoulders as well. The fact that your estate is held in an ABC Trust is even good news because the level of protection provided to the estate, as well as the beneficiaries if they so wish, against lawsuits and creditors after the grantor passes is significantly high. I therefore strongly recommend that you go ahead with the sale as you stand to gain a lot in from such a sale.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

10th (or 11th) Grade Reading List

10th (or 11th) Grade Reading List Summer reading is a great way to  maintain fluency and reading level. The right book can also encourage independent reading. But finding the elusive book your teen or students will enjoy can be tricky. While many teachers rely on the classics when choosing books there are many contemporary YA titles that are perfect for the classroom. Using contemporary YA novels can also help foster a love of reading in teens who may have trouble relating to the more adult themes and antiquated language in some classics. Many teachers have begun to incorporate novels aimed at their students age level into their lessons to great success. When assigning summer reading it can be a good idea to allow students to choose from a list of different titles. This allows the student to have some control over their assignment and the opportunity to pick a book they are truly interested in. These are a sampling of the titles that often appear on high-school reading lists for 10th (or 11th) grade. Regardless of your age or skill, the books on this list are great introductions to literature.   These are a sampling of the titles that often appear on high-school reading lists for 10th (or 11th) grade. Regardless of your age or skill, the books on this list are great introductions to literature.   Reading List Animal Farm - George OrwellBrave New World - Aldous HuxleyCanterbury Tales - Geoffrey ChaucerGullivers Travels - Jonathan SwiftHeart of Darkness - Joseph ConradJane Eyre - Charlotte BronteLord Jim - Joseph ConradHarry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone - J.K. Rowling  The Color Purple - Alice Walker1984 - George OrwellPride and Prejudice - Jane AustenReturn of the Native - Thomas HardyThe Martian - Andy WeirNever Let Me Go - Kazuo Ishiguro100 Years of Solitude - Gabriel Garcia Marquà ©zSaint Joan - George Bernard ShawDune - Frank HerbertTheir Eyes Were Watching God - Zora Neale HurstonSilas Marner - George EliotInterpreter of Maladies - Jhumpa LahiriThe House on Mango Street - Sandra CisnerosTale of Two Cities - Charles DickensTurn of the Screw - Henry JamesTo the Lighthouse - Virginia WoolfWuthering Heights - Elizabeth BronteTo Kill a Mocking Bird - Harper LeeThings Fall Apart - Chinua AchebeThe Handmaids Tale - Margaret AtwoodThe Absolutely  True Diary of a Part-Time  Indian - S herman Alexie Lord of the Flies - William Golding  Persepolis - Marjane SatrapiSlaughter-House Five - Kurt VonnegutA Rasin in the Sun - Lorraine HansberryThe Book Thief - Mark ZusakFools Crow - James WelchThe Hunger Games - Suzanne CollinsThe Perks of Being a Wallflower - Stephen ChboskySpeak - Laurie Halse AndersonNative Son - Richard WrightThe Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy - Douglas AdamsThe Catcher in the Rye - J.D. SalingerLittle Brother - Cory DoctorowThe Bell Jar - Sylvia PlathThe Outsiders - S.E. HintonThe Fire Next Time - James BaldwinBeloved - Toni Morrison

Monday, October 21, 2019

Innocent Love Walter McDonalds Essays

Innocent Love Walter McDonalds Essays Innocent Love Walter McDonalds Essay Innocent Love Walter McDonalds Essay Walter McDonald and Theodore Roethke similarly use sound devices in diverse ways to emphasize different facets of their poems while ultimately continuing to uphold a shared theme. Roethke does a particularly good job in My Papas Waltz of replicating the cadence of a waltz in the meter of its stanzas. Roethkes arrangement of mutes, aspirates, and semivowels not only complements the waltz like rhythm but also is able to highlight certain words and phrases. The first two stanzas of the poem, much like the introduction of the waltz, are smooth, long and flowing. The plurality of semivowels, aspirates, liquids and vowels almost trick our ears into believing we are actually hearing a waltz and the dancers are gliding effortlessly across the floor. However, in the third and fourth stanzas, the waltz comes to an abrupt halt with its smooth progressive rhythm being broken up by a collection of mutes. Words such as battered, missed, scraped, beat and clinging all break up the graceful waltz and suggest a more negative meaning. The emergence of mutes, especially in the last stanza where there is a strong mute ending in every line, Roethke suggests a paradox in the waltz where there seems to be a kind of underlying danger and violence to the dancing. The alcoholism of the father seems to be kept in check more or less by the controlled rhythm of the waltz and by the fathers and sons desire to maintain intimacy with each other. The waltz starts with a vowel sound, whiskey, but ends with appropriately a strong mute of clinging and connection. In contrast, in Walter McDonalds Life With Father there is a severe absence of strong mutes. Much like how the children hide from whiskey / in daddys snoring the poem flows through the seemingly pleasant vowels, aspirate, liquids and semivowels. Daddy is a perfect word that is a representation of the love and respect that comes from the constant fear that the children have for their father. McDonald could have easily inserted a strong mute to bring out the immense fear and panic of the children, but by not doing so he is able to show reverence and respect. The sound utilized by McDonald almost seems to stress softness, motion and ease. Even though fear is clearly apparent, the childrens overlying feelings of affection and respect for their father carry on amidst the strife and terror. The life with father cannot be even closely described as normal but yet the sounds utilized give us the impression that the children must be satisfied, and are thankful for what they have and find joy wherever possible. Thus we see that the overlying conflict between alcoholic parents and their simplistic nai ve children are often revealed explicitly in such poems as Life with Father and My Papas Waltz. Here both Walter McDonald and Theodore Roethke create an interesting paradox in their poems when they focus on the cruelty, brutality and viciousness of alcoholism in the home especially in relation to families but yet accentuate the ongoing feelings of love, affection, respect and compassion that children continue to hold for their fathers despite their faults. The similarities and differences of these poems in imagery and sound devices respectively, draw attention to the common theme that these poems have. McDonald and Roethke stress very effectively the strength of the family unit and its ability to preserve and endure through hardship. Problems such as alcoholism often break up families but these poems are a testament to the importance of the family unit and its unity and how amidst all conflict, love persists and thus can bind together all things.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Understanding Society Through Cultural Artifacts

Understanding Society Through Cultural Artifacts Researchers can learn a great deal about a society by analyzing cultural artifacts such as newspapers, magazines, television programs, or music. These cultural artifacts, which can also be considered aspects of material culture, can reveal a great deal about the society that produced them. Sociologists call the study of these cultural artifacts content analysis. Researchers who use content analysis are not studying the people, but rather are studying the communications the people produce as a way of creating a picture of their society. Key Takeaways: Content Analysis In content analysis, researchers examine a societys cultural artifacts in order to understand that society.Cultural artifacts are the aspects of material culture produced by a society, such as books, magazines, televisions shows, and movies.Content analysis is limited by the fact that it can only tell us what content a culture has produced, not how members of the society actually feel about those artifacts. Content analysis is frequently used to measure cultural change and to study different aspects of culture. Sociologists also use it as an indirect way to determine how social groups are perceived. For example, they might examine how African Americans are depicted in television shows or how women are depicted in advertisements. Content analysis can uncover evidence of racism and sexism in society. For example, in one study, researchers looked at the representation of female characters in 700 different films. They found that only about 30% of characters with a speaking role were female, which demonstrates a lack of representation of female characters. The study also found that people of color and LGBT individuals were underrepresented in film. In other words, by collecting data from cultural artifacts, researchers were able to determine the extent of the diversity problem in Hollywood. In conducting a content analysis, researchers quantify and analyze the presence, meanings, and relationships of words and concepts within the cultural artifacts they are studying. They then make inferences about the messages within the artifacts and about the culture they are studying. At its most basic, content analysis is a statistical exercise that involves categorizing some aspect of behavior and counting the number of times such behavior occurs. For example, a researcher might count the number of minutes that men and women appear on screen in a television show and make comparisons. This allows us to paint a picture of the patterns of behavior that underlie social interactions portrayed in the media. Strengths of Using Content Analysis Content analysis has several strengths as a research method. First, it is a great method because it is unobtrusive. That is, it has no effect on the person being studied since the cultural artifact has already been produced. Second, it is relatively easy to gain access to the media source or publication the researcher wishes to study. Rather than trying to recruit research participants to fill out questionnaires, the researcher can use cultural artifacts that have already been created. Finally, content analysis can present an objective account of events, themes, and issues that might not be immediately apparent to a reader, viewer, or general consumer. By conducting a quantitative analysis of a large number of cultural artifacts, researchers can uncover patterns that might not be noticeable from looking at only one or two examples of cultural artifacts. Weaknesses of Using Content Analysis Content analysis also has several weaknesses as a research method. First, it is limited in what it can study. Since it is based only on mass communication – either visual, oral, or written – it cannot tell us what people really think about these images or whether they affect people’s behavior. Second, content analysis may not be as objective as it claims since the researcher must select and record data accurately. In some cases, the researcher must make choices about how to interpret or categorize particular forms of behavior and other researchers may interpret it differently. A final weakness of content analysis is that it can be time consuming, as researchers need to sort through large numbers of cultural artifacts in order to draw conclusions. References Andersen, M.L. and Taylor, H.F. (2009). Sociology: The Essentials. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Macroeconomics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Macroeconomics - Assignment Example (a) If all of the currency have been deposited by Fijians in Fijian banks and the reserve ratio targets by the banks is a 100%, then the money in supply is equivalent to the amount of the deposits Fijians have deposited in the banks because they do not retain any amount. The liquidity preference framework shows how changes in demand and supply of money affect interest rates. Increase in equilibrium interest rates is a result of increase in money demand and decrease in money supply. There is a decrease in equilibrium interest rates due to decrease in money demand and increase in money supply. The role of issuing money is assumed by the central bank. Any money supply changes must originate from the central bank monetary policies. Printing more money by the central bank causes an increase in money supply. The central bank changes the money supply through channels. These channels includes buying and selling bonds from the public in exchange for money, changing reserve requirement of banks, and lastly, changing the borrowing rate of discount by banks from the central bank. By using these three tools, the central bank can lower rates of interest by raising the supply of money and increase rates by cutting the money supply. Increase in supply of money causes an increase in money demand and interest rates. The expectation of this is a higher inflation which makes the prices of items to go up. Individuals will tend to consume more and save less. The effect of this will be less capital accumulation. This shows that inflation will have a negative effect on output as people will reduce their labor supply and in turn output contracts. Investment transactions become more expensive, reducing capital accumulation leading to a decline in output. (a) Country PIN produces 4 machines and 3 breads per person and whereas country PANG produces 3machines and 8

Friday, October 18, 2019

The American Plague Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The American Plague - Essay Example Contrary to the popular perception that it belongs exclusively to the African continent, Yellow Fever is reemerging in contemporary times. Yellow Fever is a dangerous viral disease which can be fatal. An understanding of the disease’s history, causes, types, symptoms, treatment and fatality, can raise awareness about Yellow Fever and help in its prevention. Yellow Fever originated in Africa, and spread to South America, through the slave trade in the sixteenth century. Epidemics continued to plague Europe, South America, and the coastal cities of America, such as New York, Philadelphia, Charleston, and New Orleans, in the following three centuries, making it one of the most dangerous infectious diseases of the nineteenth century (Nordqvist, 2009) Yellow Fever is caused by the Flavivirus which is endemic to African arboreal monkeys. Mosquitoes serve as the primary vector for this virus. Several different species of the Aedes and Haemogogus mosquitoes, found in the tropical and subtropical parts of South America, parts of the Caribbean, and Africa,  transmit the virus from one host to another: between monkeys, between humans, and from monkeys to humans. Mosquitoes, primates and humans are the only known hosts of the flavivirus (WHO, 2012). Yellow Fever is of three types, depending on the transmission cycle. Sylvatic, or Jungle Yellow Fever, is transmitted by jungle mosquitoes, and is largely confined to monkeys. Occasionally, it is transmitted to humans, such as loggers, who enter the jungle, and is then carried by them to urban areas. Intermediate Yellow Fever is caused by semi-domestic mosquitoes, which breed both in the jungle and round houses. This results in the transmission of the virus to both monkeys and humans, and is the most common type. Urban Yellow Fever occurs in densely populated areas when the mosquitoes bite infected humans and transmit the virus to other humans (WHO, 2012). The symptoms of Yellow Fever occur in three stages. The virus i ncubates in the body of the host for three to six days, after which symptoms set in. In stage 1, the infection takes hold. This stage is characterized by headache, muscle and joint aches, shivers, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, and vomiting. Jaundice, in which there is evident yellowing of the skin and eyes, is common, and gives the disease its name. Symptoms often go away briefly after about 3-4 days, when the remission stage sets in. The majority of those affected recovers after this stage, and acquire immunity to reinfection. However, about 15% of those infected enter the third stage, which is the toxic stage. This stage is characterized by high fever and heart, liver and kidney failure. Hemorrhages of the mouth, nose, eyes and stomach can occur, leading to blood in the vomit and faeces. Seizures, coma, and delirium are other symptoms. Approximately half the patients, who enter this stage, die of the disease (WHO, 2012). The danger of Yellow Fever is compounded by the fact th at there is no treatment except supportive care. There is no cure for the disease. About fifty percent of severely affected individuals die of Yellow Fever. Treatment is directed towards making the patient comfortable, and reducing the symptoms. Fever, and other associated bacterial infections, are treated with antibiotics; blood transfusion is given to compensate for blood loss due to hemorrhage; intravenous fluids are used to treat dehydration,

Scattering or Sowing of Seeds Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Scattering or Sowing of Seeds - Essay Example Digging into the definition of "collective memory" it is evident that past experiences of an individual in a society influences the experiences of others in the same society and elsewhere. Collective memory is defined as the shared memory that can be passed on and also constructed by the group or modern society. (Esquith, 1996, P. 78) The definition further predisposes that it s the memory that a community possesses of its own history, lessons and learning it consciously. The tendency of bringing the entire institutional fabric which is created during such periods (when such memory occurs) impacts neglectively on the role of collective memory. It does not play a crucial role in the processes of political change. It leaves a mark on the daily political practices once the new regime becomes established. Collective memory leaves traces of the past memory in the political learning systems but to some extend this is unavoidable. (Fabre, 1994, P.29) Most of the studies under this topic focus on the effects of trauma that is produced by the memory of those bad times, war for example. Most of the scholars indicate that the war left an indelible mark on the nation. This could or can affect and undermine the peaceful nature of the society at critical moments. Collective memory instills lessons in the individuals' life and when it comes to political learning, chances are that political change may be effective. Political learning is the process through which people modify their political beliefs and tactics as a result of severe crisis, frustrations and dramatic changes in the environment. (Fabre, 1994, P. 33) This phenomenon is based on the fact that beliefs are not fixed immutably in childhood and that they are affected by political events. Political learning represents a process of cognitive change which is key to democratic reconstruction. In the African American culture has a history of struggle. African American struggled to succeed and be free, equal and affirmed. These experiences have impacted positively in some aspects. Most of them have positive sense of racial identity and spiritual strength because during the slavery period, the spirit was vital for survival. It was in the open that colour was a major determinant of who would be a slave and who would be free. (Walton, 1997, P. 132) The spiritual strength of the African - American was also derived from the physical and psychological struggles of slavery. They value self-love and love for others as methods through which people can enhance their personal lives. Through enhancing the lives of people, political change would be evident. Despite the experiences that they had gone through, they still had a great sense of accommodating change. (Walton, 1997, P. 34) Collective memory comes about through collective attitudes and behaviors. These are created and shared through common experiences and communication among a group of people. In the case of the African American, the slavery attitudes and experiences were eminent. The use of collective memory as a political socialization agent was a good target to the bringing of new knowledge to the people through political learning. It had a role of changing perceptions and attitudes of a group of people who had been exposed to hard kind of life. This tool captures the interests of researchers and scholars in social, psychological memory, sociology and anthropology. Research has it that individuals who were born between 1940 and 1960 are

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Effects of Administrative Corruption in the Public Sector Essay

Effects of Administrative Corruption in the Public Sector - Essay Example Data will be analyzed with the help of statistical software to ensure the validity of the information collected. The study is intended to be spread over a duration of no more than three months. According to Rabl & Kuhlmann (2008), corruption refers to deviant behavior that could occur in the politics, society, the economy, or within an organization, for the benefit of an individual or an institution. Such acts of corruption are kept in secret and are damaging to all the individuals involved, particularly to people who have contributed funds and have been cheated on. It has been found to have wide-ranging and profound effects and research studies have actually found a relationship between corruption and private investment as well as growth. There is also a connection between corruption and currency rises and capital flows, higher income inequality, poverty, inflation, inferior resource allocation, distorted expenditures by the government, thereby all lowering standards of public life (Faria 2001). The researcher aims to find out the problems that are the result of corruption that has not yet been explored. For this study, the researcher shall focus on the public sector, since corruption done in the public sector is more detrimental towards the well-being of the global society. According to the Law Commission in its Consultation Paper on Corruption, public bodies are more prone to corruption as compared to private bodies (Law Commission 1997). The public sector plays a vital role in the economic development of a country.  

Local Politician Event in Ireland Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Local Politician Event in Ireland - Assignment Example In here, the work starts in planning, staffing, delegating, handling of resources and finances, monitoring the flow of the plan, execution of plan, implementation and post production endeavors. In other words, in handling a certain event one has to understand the 3 P's of it- The Pre Production, Production and the post production. There are several varieties of even and production with different purposes. In dealing with such things, one has to understand the nature of the event and intended outcome. This paper will deal on handling even wherein there is a fundraising event for a local politician running for election. This paper will delve on things and key aspects with regards in realizing the success of an event in this kind of nature and how areas of concern are addressed in order to fulfill the objective of the event. In order to determine the necessary steps in handling events, the aid of relevant literature is crucial in determining the needed tasks and process in order to fulfill the requisites needed by a certain event. Special events magazine have described and defined common problems encircling issues with regards to event handling. "OFTEN, EVENT planners have a fairly consistent set of questions on their mind: I have a limited budget, yet I need AV - how do I set priorities in my budget If I want lighting, sound, video, staging and decor, should I just give each part of the production a smaller piece to make sure I get some of everything (Poulos 2005)" Dealing with events and production requires knowledge, expertise and views of critics explaining the tasks and essence of handling events and productions. Also, locolobo events (2007) further stated that "Event planning can come from anywhere; parties you've attended, magazines and library resources or more conveniently, the internet. Before you initiate the research process, create a task list. Do this by visualizing your definition of a flawless event, then note all the intricate details you need to create that winning outcome. Your list should contain all the elements needed for seamless event production. Venue selection, catering, tent or flatware rentals, entertainment, invitations and favors are just a snippet of the planning and preparation that goes into event production. The responsibility can be overwhelming for many people, especially for those trying to juggle event production with their every day responsibilities. With the right event planning tips, throwing a soiree do esn't have to be taxing." Local politician event in Ireland (Chinese National Day Ball Dublin) 3 Proposal to the client Before entering a discussion to the client regarding budget and related concerns with regards to event that is to be handled, one has to find and research possible information regarding the client and the event that he wanted to realize. Upon knowing this information, the client would know that you are interested in doing business with him and this thing would further strengthen the chance in obtaining the deal with him. In relation to this, the event organizer must also know if the client is new in encountering the event or has previous experiences which would be a basis in giving your proposal to him. The proposal must contain the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Effects of Administrative Corruption in the Public Sector Essay

Effects of Administrative Corruption in the Public Sector - Essay Example Data will be analyzed with the help of statistical software to ensure the validity of the information collected. The study is intended to be spread over a duration of no more than three months. According to Rabl & Kuhlmann (2008), corruption refers to deviant behavior that could occur in the politics, society, the economy, or within an organization, for the benefit of an individual or an institution. Such acts of corruption are kept in secret and are damaging to all the individuals involved, particularly to people who have contributed funds and have been cheated on. It has been found to have wide-ranging and profound effects and research studies have actually found a relationship between corruption and private investment as well as growth. There is also a connection between corruption and currency rises and capital flows, higher income inequality, poverty, inflation, inferior resource allocation, distorted expenditures by the government, thereby all lowering standards of public life (Faria 2001). The researcher aims to find out the problems that are the result of corruption that has not yet been explored. For this study, the researcher shall focus on the public sector, since corruption done in the public sector is more detrimental towards the well-being of the global society. According to the Law Commission in its Consultation Paper on Corruption, public bodies are more prone to corruption as compared to private bodies (Law Commission 1997). The public sector plays a vital role in the economic development of a country.  

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Slave resistance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Slave resistance - Essay Example the behaviors exhibited by individuals are observable and does not necessarily require the observation of their mental states in order to explain their behaviors in the environments that they live in (New & Cochran, 2007). However, Watson indicated that observable behaviors are the only ones that can be included in the observation rather than those that include subjective emotions. Drawing on this, this essay will delve into the concept of behaviorism with a focus on learning behavior based on the research findings of Pavlov’s dogs and Skinner’s rats. Essentially, behaviorists deem that people can receive training in order for them to execute various tasks irrespective of their genetic composition or their personalities as long as the conditioning is the right one. In this regard, the two types of conditioning are classical and operant conditioning in which most of the adherents of behaviorism abide by. In essence, operant conditioning is a learning method that involves the inclusion of rewards or punishments depending on the behavior exhibited. On the other hand, classical conditioning is another form of behavioral training method whereby there is a natural response in terms of behavior to the stimulating factor applied (New & Cochran, 2007). The terms used to define the two factors applied in this form of conditioning are conditioned stimulus and response. Based on this school of thought, Russian Psychologist Pavlov applied the conditioned response drawing from the behavior that his dogs portrayed when it came to them salivatin g whether or not their master brought food during his entry into the room that they were in. Through research, Pavlov discovered the salivating behavioral trait that dogs tend to have is not a trainable behavior, meaning that the response is unconditioned indicating food is not the only stimulant that provokes this response. In the course of Pavlov’s research, this psychologist unearthed that dogs salivated or exhibited the same

Monday, October 14, 2019

Pennsylvania Sovereign Immunity Statute Essay Example for Free

Pennsylvania Sovereign Immunity Statute Essay Rooted in the history of common law in England was the immunity of the sovereign from the processes of the law (Christie and Meeks, 1990). However, this idea of some man or body of men above the law was said to be objectionable to the English concept of justice (Christie and Meeks, 1990). â€Å"The King can do no wrong† was often the explanation for the said immunity but denoted more the lack of adequate redress at law than absence of capacity to violate the law (Christie and Meeks, 1990). Thus, the agitation for the availability of tort remedy against the sovereign, or the state to any considerable degree led to the mature development of the law (Christie and Meeks 1990, page 1202). Because of the increase in the scope of governmental activities and the expanding activities of the Federal Government which touch upon the life of every citizen in such an intimate manner, pressures to either abolish the state’s immunity from suit or to have a waiver of the sovereign immunity in limited situations, increased (Christie and Meeks, 1990). The Pennsylvania Sovereign Immunity Statute has been one of those which hoped to address the increasing dissatisfaction with the concept of sovereign immunity from suit (Christie and Meeks, 1990). This paper hopes to explain the Pennsylvania Sovereign Immunity Statute and the exceptions provided for under the said statute. The paper would also present the particular Constitutional provision which provides support for the exception to the Sovereign Immunity. Finally, the paper hopes to present case laws, the venue, process and limitations, in order to explain further the exception to the said immunity statute. Pennsylvania Sovereign Immunity Statute Over three-fourths of the states in the United States of America have either totally abolished the doctrine of sovereign immunity or substantially modified it (Christie and Meeks, 1990). One such example is Pennsylvania which provides for exceptions to the doctrine of sovereign immunity. 42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8521-8528 provides for the Sovereign Immunity in general, the exceptions and the limitations on damages. 42 Pa. C. S.  § 8522 (b) provide for acts which may impose liability which include: Vehicle Liability or the operation of any motor vehicle in the possession or control of a Commonwealth party; Medical-professional liability or acts of health care employees of Commonwealth agency medical facilities or institutions or by a Commonwealth party who is a doctor, dentist, nurse or related health care personnel; Care, custody or control of personal property in the possession or control of Commonwealth parties, including Commonwealth-owned personal property and property of persons held by a Commonwealth agency; A dangerous condition of Commonwealth agency real estate and sidewalks, including Commonwealth-owned real property, leaseholds in the possession of a Commonwealth agency and Commonwealth-owned real property leased by a Commonwealth agency to private persons, and highways under the jurisdiction of a Commonwealth agency; Potholes and other dangerous conditions of highways under the jurisdiction of a Commonwealth agency created by potholes or sinkholes or other similar conditions created by natural elements; The care, custody or control of animals in the possession or control of a Commonwealth party, including but not limited to police dogs and horses and animals incarcerated in Commonwealth agency laboratories; the sale of liquor at Pennsylvania liquor stores by employees of the Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board created by and operating under the Liquor Code, if such sale is made to any minor, or to any person visibly intoxicated, or to any insane person, or to any person known as an habitual drunkard, or of known intemperate habit; National Guard activities or acts of a member of the Pennsylvania military forces; and finally, the administration, manufacture and use of a toxoid or vaccine not manufactured in the Commonwealth under conditions specified by the statute (42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8522 (b)). Under the Pennsylvania Constitution, all courts shall be open and every man for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation shall have remedy by due course of law, without sale, denial or delay, and suits may be brought against the Commonwealth in such manner, in such courts and in such cases as the Legislature may by law direct (Pa. Const. Art. I,  § 11). Hence, under this provision the general assembly waives sovereign immunity which is a bar to an action against commonwealth parties where damages would be recoverable under the common law or statute creating a cause of action if the injury were caused by a person to whom the defense of sovereign immunity is not available (Westlaw, n. d. ). Exceptions to the Sovereign Immunity The first exception to sovereign immunity is the vehicle liability or the operation of any motor vehicle liability in the possession or control of a Commonwealth party (42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8522 (b)). Motor vehicle means any vehicle which is self-propelled and any attachment thereto, including vehicles operated by rail, through water or in the air (42 Pa. C. S.  § 8522 (b)). In Harding v. City of Philadelphia, 777 A. 2d 1249 (Pa. Cmwlth. 2001), the Court held that bicycles are not motor vehicles (Governor’s Center for Local Government Services, 2003). In determining whether the vehicle is in operation, the Supreme Court held that the dispatcher’s directions do not constitute operation under the vehicle exception (Regester v. Longwood Ambulance Company, Inc. , 797 A. 2d 898 (Pa. Cmwlth. 2002)). In another case, the Court held that citys negligent maintenance and repair of fire departments rescue van was â€Å"operation of motor vehicle† within meaning of motor vehicle exception to governmental immunity (Mickle v.  City of Philadelphia 550 Pa. 539, 707 A. 2d 1124 (1998)). The Court further explains in the case of Vogel v. Langer, 569 A. 2d 1047 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1990), that â€Å"operation necessarily entails momentary stops due to traffic and communication with other drivers, or such acts which are an integral part of the operation itself (Vogel v. Langer, 569 A. 2d 1047 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1990)). The second exception provides for the medical-professional liability or acts of health care employees of Commonwealth agency medical facilities or institutions or by a Commonwealth party who is a doctor, dentist, nurse or related health care personnel (42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8522 (b)). In Williams v. Syed, No. 431 C. D. 2001, the Court held that Dr. Syed has no privilege to claim sovereign immunity as a defense because as Chief Medical Director of State Correctional Institute at Pittsburgh, he falls within the medical professional liability (Williams v. Syed, No. 431 C. D. 2001). In the case of Stack v. Wapner, 368 A. 2d 292 (Pa. Super. 1976), patients successfully sued physicians for their negligent failure to monitor the patients after administering certain drugs (Stack v. Wapner, 368 A. 2d 292 (Pa. Super. 1976)). The third provides for the personal property exception, which is under the possession or control of the Commonwealth. The Court held that personal property must directly cause plaintiff’s injury not just facilitate it (Dept. of Environmental Resources v. Myers, 581 A. 2d 696 Pa. Cmwlth. (1990)). In this case, a helicopter pilot brought an action for injuries incurred when, under contract with the Department of Environmental Resources (DER), his helicopter ran into power lines while spraying for gypsy moths (Dept. of Environmental Resources v. Myers, 581 A. 2d 696 Pa. Cmwlth. (1990)). The pilot alleged that DER negligently placed the balloons marking the boundaries of the area to be sprayed as well as negligently providing him with a typographical map that failed to show the power lines (Dept. of Environmental Resources v. Myers, 581 A. 2d 696 Pa.  Cmwlth. (1990)). Because of the negligent placement of the balloons and the incorrectly marked map, the pilot contended those items of the Commonwealths personal property directly caused his injuries (Dept. of Environmental Resources v. Myers, 581 A. 2d 696 Pa. Cmwlth. (1990)). Rejecting that argument, the Court held that the placement of the balloons did not cause the injury, but merely facilitated another kind of negligence which is professional incompetence (Dept. of Environmental Resources v. Myers, 581 A. 2d 696 Pa. Cmwlth. (1990)). The fourth provides for the real property exception which is under the care, custody or control of the agency. The Court in a case held that the scroll saw was realty, taking into account the nature of the saw, the status of it with respect to the realty, the manner of annexation, and the use for which the scroll saw was installed (Cureton ex. rel. Cannon v. Philadelphia School District, 798 A. 2d 279 Pa. Cmwlth. 2002). In Collins v. City of Philadelphia 227 Pa. 121, 75 A. 1028, Pa. 1910, the Court held that the hole, six inches square, near the middle of a narrow sidewalk and in the direct line of ordinary travel, was more or less dangerous to all persons passing, whether walking or on skates (Collins v. City of Philadelphia 227 Pa. 121, 75 A. 1028, Pa. 1910). Thus, the girl whose foot went into the opening which resulted in permanent injuries, is within the exception provided by the statute (Collins v. City of Philadelphia 227 Pa. 121, 75 A. 1028, Pa. 910). The fifth exception provides that a dangerous condition of highways under the jurisdiction of a Commonwealth agency created by potholes or sinkholes or other similar conditions created by natural elements, shall be an exception to the sovereign immunity but the claimant must establish that the dangerous condition created a reasonably foreseeable risk of the kind of injury and that the Commonwealth agency had actual written notice of the dangerous condition of the highway a sufficient time prior to the event to have taken measures to protect against the dangerous condition (42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8522 (b)). In Litchfield, 22 D. C. 4th 123 (C. P.  Clinton 1994) in that the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation has the responsibility to make a highway under its jurisdiction safe before it can transfer that jurisdiction, and that whether the highway was safe at the time of transfer is a factual issue for the jury (Litchfield, 22 D. C. 4th 123 (C. P. Clinton 1994)). The sixth exception provides for the care, custody or control of animals in the possession or control of animals in the possession or control of a Commonwealth party to which the Commonwealth may be held liable (condition (42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8522 (b)). In a case, the Court held that the City of Philadelphia was not in control of a stray dog that attacked the plaintiff under the exception because a stray dog was not within the possession and control of the City (Jenkins v. Kelly, 498 A. 2d 487 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1985). Furthermore, the Court also held in another case that the fact that a township had investigated prior attacks by a dog, owned by a private citizen, and had even temporarily quarantined the dog on one of the occasions, did not create â€Å"possession or control† of the dog, when, at its owner’s premises, the dog attacked her guests (Lerro ex rel. Lerro v. Upper Darby Tp. , 798 A. 2d 817 (Pa. Cmwlth. 2002). The seventh exception provides that liquor store sales at Pennsylvania liquor stores by employees of the Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board if such sale is made to any minor, or to any person visibly intoxicated or to any insane person, or to any person known to any person known as a habitual drunkard or of a known intemperate habit then, Commonwealth cannot use as a defense, sovereign immunity (42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8522 (b)). Acts of members of the military forces are also included in the exception from the sovereign immunity statute (42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8522 (b)). In a case, the Court held that the proposition that the Supreme Court held that the supremacy clause of the United States Constitution prevents a state from immunizing state acts from liability imposed under federal holding that because the Pennsylvania Sovereign Immunity Act does not immunize the unnamed defendants from a cause of action created under federal law, the action cannot be foreclosed merely because the conduct of the defendants does not fall within any of the exceptions to immunity (Heinly v. Commonwealth, 153 Pa. Cmwlth. 599, 621 A. 2d 1212, 1215, 1216 (1993)). Finally, the last exception provides that the liability may be imposed on the Commonwealth for a toxoid or vaccine not manufactured in Pennsylvania and Pennsylvania must take responsibility for it (42 Pa. C. S.  §Ã‚ § 8522 (b)). The statute provides for the following additional guidelines, that the toxoid or vaccine is manufactured in, and available only from, an agency of another state; the agency of the other state will not make the toxoid or vaccine available to private persons or corporations, but will only permit its sale to another state or state agency; the agency of the other state will make the toxoid or vaccine available to the Commonwealth only if the Commonwealth agrees to indemnify, defend and save harmless that agency from any and all claims and losses which may arise against it from the administration, manufacture or use of the toxoid or vaccine; a determination has been made by the appropriate Commonwealth agency, approved by the Governor and published in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, that the toxoid or vaccine is necessary to safeguard and protect the health of the citizens or animals of this Commonwealth; the toxoid or vaccine is distributed by a Commonwealth agency to qualified persons for ul timate use. Hence, the Court held that to apply this exception, there must be a strict interpretation based on the legislature’s intent (Jones v. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority 565 Pa. 211, 772 A. 2d 435 (2001)). Venue, Process and Limitations As provided in 42 Pa. C. S.  § 8523, actions for claims against a Commonwealth party may be brought in and only in a county in which the principal or local office of the Commonwealth party is located or in which the cause of action arose or where a transaction or occurrence took place out of which the cause of action arose (42 Pa. C. S.  § 8523). The statute adds that if venue is obtained in the Twelfth Judicial District (Dauphin County) solely because the principal office of the Commonwealth party is located within it, any judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Dauphin County shall have the power to transfer the action to any appropriate county where venue would otherwise lie (42 Pa. C. S.  § 8523). The service of process in the case of an action against the Commonwealth shall be made at the principal or local office of the Commonwealth agency that is being sued and at the office of the Attorney General lie (42 Pa. C. S.  § 8523). Limitations on damages is also stated in 42 Pa. C. S.  § 8528 wherein damages arising from the same cause of action or transaction or occurrence or series of causes of action or transactions or occurrences shall not exceed $250,000, in favor of any plaintiff or $1,000,000 in the aggregate (42 Pa. C. S.  § 8528). Furthermore the types of damages recoverable are those damages recoverable only for: Past and future loss of earnings and earning capacity; Pain and suffering; Medical and dental expenses including the reasonable value of reasonable and necessary medical and dental services, prosthetic devices and necessary ambulance, hospital, professional nursing, and physical therapy expenses accrued and anticipated in the diagnosis, care and recovery of the claimant; Loss of consortium; Property losses, except that property losses shall not be recoverable in claims brought pursuant to section 8522(b)(5) which relates to potholes and other dangerous conditions (42 Pa. C. S.  § 8528). In all these, suits against an agency of Pennsylvania may prosper once the plaintiff provides that his claim is under one of the exceptions provided for under the statute. The sovereign immunity therefore under the Pennsylvania Sovereign Immunity Statute is not at all absolute and persons may file suits if their cla ims fall under one of the exceptions provided.